Removing CRE-Klebsiella Pneumoniae from Healthcare Buildings, Nursing Homes, Hospitals, Long Term Care Centers, Rehab Centers Using Hydroxyl Generators/Processors from Odorox Air/Pyure
What Are Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae?
More commonly known as CRE, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are bacteria that are located in a person’s gastrointestinal (GI) tract that can cause major infections. Some of these Enterobacteriaceae are resistant to antibiotics, making it harder to eradicate CRE from hospital settings. While they were common in the US before 1992, they have recently become a much bigger problem. Enterobacteriaceae that produce a certain arbapenemase have become a major issue.
How These Bacteria Become Resistant to the Use of Carbapenems
CRE can become resistant to carbapenems for a number of reasons. In the past, most CRE were resistant to carbapenems for a number of reasons but recently things have changed. As Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and other carbapenamases have emerged, they have caused CRE to become more resistant. Genes on KPC are very mobile and can be transmitted easily from one bacterium to others very quickly, which causes resistance to spread. This means that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant to the usual treatment types, leaving doctors and other medical care professionals wondering how they will treat these medical problems.
How Common Are These CRE in the US?
Unfortunately, these Enterobacteriaceae are becoming more and more common in the US. While there isn’t systematic surveillance from the CDC, passive surveillance shows an increase in numbers. This is especially true for people who have been exposed to the bacterium in other countries where it is endemic.
Why are CRE This Important?
CRE are very important and need to be studied and understood for many reasons. Primarily, these are organisms that are resistant to many types of antibiotics, leaving people wondering how to remove CRE (Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae) in health care settings. Additionally, these organisms have very high mortality rates with some studies showing rates of up to 50%. Third, there are many CRE that have carbapenemases that can transmit from one bacterium to another, causing resistance to spread. Finally, infections in healthcare and community settings are often caused by Enterobacteriaceae. If they become resistant to treatment, then this is going to be a major problem as people try to figure out how to kill CRE bacteria.
Infection vs. Colonization
CRE can either be classified as a colonization or an infection. If there is a colonization, then there is CRE on the body but there is no disease or symptom. They can later cause infections if they are able to enter areas in the body such as the lungs, bladder, or bloodstream. Infections have symptoms that can vary depending on what part of the body was affected.
Who Is at Risk for CRE Infection?
Anyone who works in healthcare, is in a medical setting for treatment, or is exposed to antimicrobials is at risk for acquisition. Outbreaks are often associated with long-term care, mechanical ventilation, and antimicrobials such as fluoroquinolones and carbapenems.
Infections can occur in almost any part of the body including intra-abdominal abscesses, bloodstream infections, and pneumonia. Most CRE bacterial infections target the urinary tract, specifically in those who have catheters or urinary retention. CRE can kill up to 50% of all people who have bloodstream infections.
CRE is generally transmitted from one person to another via contaminated equipment or hands. Good hand hygiene and personal protective equipment are both imperative to stop the spread of CRE.
When to Stop Isolation
The CDC has not made a recommendation on when to stop isolating patients due to CRE. People can actually be colonized by CRE for months at a time, which means that they can still be considered dangerous. Doctors who want to eliminate CRE from nursing homes shouldn’t discontinue isolation based on one negative culture because past studies have shown that CRE may still be present on the patient.
Rapidly isolating patients who are colonized or infected is important but so is treating the environment. Using hydroxyl generator air machines from Odorox/Pyure is a great way to find and eradicate CRE in the environment. They can kill CRE in the air and on surfaces, producing a cleaner and safer hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare area.
My husband and I recently purchased a condominium apartment which has a few severe issues. Firstly, it had yellow nicotine covered ceiling, walls and air vents. Secondly, there was extensive soiled broadloom throughout. The odor in the dwelling was a sickly combination of nicotine, animal waste, and extreme mustiness due to the animal refuse/waste.
The previous owner was a chain smoker. She resided in this 2,400 square foot, three level condominium for just over 13 years. The areas most affected by the nicotine were the kitchen, dining room and the family room. Further, the dwelling was vacant for over one year. This resulted in the nicotine, animal excrement and dirt compounding over time and spider webs and a thick layer of dust had visibly accumulated on the ceilings and walls.
We started by scrubbing every surface. The ceilings once cleaned were still yellow and the nicotine odor was still very strong. One could not spend much time there without one's eyes starting to burn and itch. We then spray painted all the ceilings with an oil based paint and subsequently painted every surface of the dwelling. Unfortunately, the nicotine odor was still quite heavy. We then removed the entire broadloom and under pad. We cleaned the cement floor with a special cement-cleaning product before installation of the new under pad and broadloom. Unfortunately, even after we completed all this, the odor was still there. Cleaning, painting and installing new broadloom throughout had still not solved the air quality issues we were facing.
The furnace and ventilation systems were a major concern. How could we clean and solve the areas we could not physically access? Along came The Boss. I had heard about the hydroxyl technology from a friend. Clearly, no matter how much we cleaned, scrubbed, painted or replaced, there was no way that anyone could reside here unless all the odor and bacteria were totally removed.
The Boss, a non-contained Hydroxyl Generator is easy to use and quiet. We ran the unit with and without the air conditioner on as we wanted the air going through the vents to eliminate the odor and bacteria there as well. We ran The Boss for a period of two to three days on each level of the three level condominium apartment. The Boss was miraculously successful in solving our air quality problem. The condominium apartment not only looked clean but also felt and smelled clean.
It was evident that even though we scrubbed, painted and replaced all the old flooring, without the help of The Boss, we would have never been able to achieve the level of clean air quality we required. The odor and bacteria were all eliminated. I can only imagine the multitude of applications this product could be used for. It is light, easy to move and is quiet to operate. Thanks to The Boss, we were able to complete our restoration.
Thanks for bringing such a great product to market!
I have ten years experience as an estimator, trainer, and general manager of a 3 million dollar+ cleaning and restoration firm. As a Certified Restorer I have never endorsed one product over another. I have always believed that there were products available laterally that were as good what was being offered at the time.
After using your Odorox machines my opinion has changed. We recently put them to the test by placing them in a basement that had a fire..before we tore out! The Odorox completely eliminated the smoke odor. I thought for sure the odor would return when we tore out the drywall but it didn?t. This was great since we had spaced sheathing with felt paper and hardwood above it. We were able to eliminate the odor without removing the floors! I believe you may have found the next 'sliced bread'.
Johnathan B. Launder
Cleaning & Restoration
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Odorox hydroxyl technology destroys 99.9% of germs, bacteria, mold, mildew, voc's and viruses in the air and on porous and non-porous surfaces which can cause illness and infections. MDU/RX FDA approved and safe to use in spaces occupied by people, pets, and plants.